Here’s How Electric Cars Are WLTP / EPA Range Tested!
I am thrilled to bring this video to you because today we are talking about electric vehicles, temperature, controlled dyno testing and range test cycles. This is a topic i want to get more into you guys know we do a ton of range testing on our channel and what were trying to do is bring more information to you about how cars are engineered, produced and brought to market. Its extremely complicated were only brushing the surface, but we want to get this broad picture overview through the series of inside magna videos and then were going to figure out what you want to see and go super nerdy in depth over the coming years. We have so much to talk about im thrilled to do this project and today were at magnas integration building where were talking about yeah range test cycles, thermal performance of electric systems, hvac systems, basically how the whole powertrain and cooling package comes together to make something drivable. So that we evaluate it essentially, this is the step right before we get the cars and bring the footage to you. This is fascinating, so were going into this very indescript building we actually cant move the camera because were surrounded by vehicle prototypes, its fast stuff. You guys would just be drooling over that. I really cant talk about anyway. My new friend alfreds in here hey great, to see you hi nice to meet you nice to meet you thanks for having us youre welcome, uh.
I know im in the right place because im looking at turbo chargers, electric motors everything – i love right here – differential systems explain what you guys do inside of magna here yeah. So i think you have seen already some stations. What we do here is the physical testing, the validation, the verification of complete vehicles. We are here on a complete legal roller dyno and we are doing the testing we test lets say functionalities. We do the verification we do tuning. We do optimization of functions. Everything on complete week level, you have seen something on a test rig. Now this is physical testing with the complete video game. This is like my dream job. I dont know how to explain. Ive been wanting to see something like this forever and i we only have a couple laboratories in the u.s, maybe 10 or less, that can do the efficiency testing and the drive cycles that you guys are running here. So this is really really stellar to see um and the best part is its just this little building and no one would know its here. Yeah its so cool show us what you got. Okay, lets get in so were walking back through this way and already greeted with just some amazing things up over here: im seeing computers and yeah. This is what we came here to see yeah so welcome again. What you can see here is our complete vehicle. Roller dyno here is already a test procedure of an electric vehicle.
We are doing a lot of functional testing here we are doing driving range testing, wltp testing epa testing, so every kind of drive cycle if its a specific customer drive cycle if its a standard test cycle with thermal management on very cold ambient on very hot ambient. With solarization, so everything can be done on this roller dyno. So the whole idea really to bring a car to a laboratory like this and to engineer here is its very expensive to ship vehicles all around the world and to get the conditions exactly repeatable. Every single time, so what you can do is, with a flip of a switch, make this minus 35 or plus 35. How hot can you go? I think even much more up to 60 to 70 degrees, so real toasty and you can then say: okay, what happens if you start the vehicle and floor it instantly or what happens if you start the vehicle and you idle for a long time with a combustion Vehicle, so you can run all these different types of tests, but one thing that was really interesting that you told me is: you can actually run a wltp test cycle here and model what this would look like, and so, if you have, i guess, a certification person. The laboratory itself, not you guys, but the laboratory is so stringent. You can actually do official range testing here exactly so we prepare everything for the test. Um, first of all, before the test is running, were checking everything that the vehicle fits how it should work like.
We do bug fixing here. If you know at a certain temperature, we have some issues, we can prepare it several times. We can do it unless the issue is fixed and finally, if youre close to the certification were doing everything here and then finally, the homologation procedure takes place so in other episodes that weve shot with magna weve explained that magna can provide a whole host of engineering Services from you know, literally a fresh automaker who just has a sketch and idea and actually engineer and produce a car from the ground up all the way to working with large oes and just assisting with their projects. Perhaps if its a combustion adapted chassis to battery electric similar to like an i4, a mini cooper, st something like this, it would be the idea. But when would be the first time you actually bring a car in here to start playing around with it. Is it before you do road testing or after road testing lets, say? First of all, after we do, the basic um commissioning at standstill were doing the low voltage checks were doing the safety checks. Everything must be saved before then. We start with the startup procedure. Um low speed driving on our test track, which is close to our facility and then, if it goes to functional testing calibration high speed, were going here on the test rate. So you can go here and what uh speed range can you go up to on this um? I think its close to the uh 300 kph so 200 miles per hour, 200 miles, yeah 260 kilo, 260 kilograms, two six, okay, so so 155 160 miles per hour.
So yeah, which is you know, autobahn speeds thats the maximum speed of most electric vehicles. I cant think of very many that go higher and, of course, with most production cars theyre not going this fast anyway for efficiency. They they kind of cap them down a little bit um. But can you walk us through just broad scale and maybe we can even go inside and see everything here and then id actually love to see a test cycle being run because i can see on this computer this sort of like mountain looking thing. I imagine this is the test cycle that the driver is trying to follow exactly, i would say, lets go to martin and he will introduce in detail. Oh thatd be great. Thank you so much so let me introduce a little bit more to the dyno here. So, as hellford also mentioned, we are able to run this from 35 degrees to 55 degrees. We can simulate the sunlight with the full light spectrum yeah. So if you come in here, you can take a look up high and you can have a totally different light. Uh spectrum right, so you can go from a warm to colder. How does that work its its always the same spectrum, its okay spectrum? Like you, see uh, i i i actually im not an expert on how to define the spectrum but its containing uh uh. The? U v a a and b and so on, a bunch of stuff, yeah yeah its really like full sunlight, wow, and you can see the driver is even wearing sunglasses, thats kind of our safety uh restrictions yeah once he has to do something inside and is not Covered by the windshield, he has also to wear than a head and to uh oh interesting, put on the sunscreen and so on Laughter.
But we use that for thermal testing. So we test the atrix system. We test all the different fluid temperatures and therefore its needed that we also have sunlight. This is also for emission tests or for a range test for the apa tests, but um. When we do thermal tests, you have to think of a driving situation like parking. The car on a very hot uh place then leaving the car. Then we have 45 degrees celsius, ambient temperature and full sunlight, and then we keep the car there for one one and a half hours and then the driver comes back, gets into the car starts the car. And how long does it take till certain zones of the air of the of the cabin reach target temperature right yeah, so you go max ac and then how quickly can you pull around and um? You know something thats interesting as well and and just a point to bring up as we talk about wltp and epa and all these cycles a lot of our viewers, i think think the manufacturers rate the cars right, so they say oh well, insert brand here said My car will go 300 miles, but its not them. They have to share what the test cycle provides and each car has to run through when it gets through range testing or efficiency testing. A set multiple drive cycles in a somewhat fixed standard, which then they have to legally display that number on the paper, its not the manufacturers rating, the car, its its the same for every oem.
Everybody has to run through the same procedures and, of course nobody will try to make the range worse than it could be. But of course there might be a difference between what the customer really sees then at the end and whats rated. But, for example, if we as a test lab, get a car that has been certified somewhere else, then we should get the same result here. Okay, very interesting, so youll get that same exact result uh and you can run any drive cycle that you want here. So you can do all the us cycles. You can do all the eu cycles, all the china cycles and and calculate things. However, you want the interesting thing with this, though, is its not necessarily representative of what a customer would get in their car because they drive in cold conditions or in warm conditions, and so um. Perhaps you know this is where we come in. As you know, sort of this bridge between engineers and and our viewers is trying to explain how conditions will affect the range of the car because um you know, some people buy a car and say it should do 300 miles and they only get 230 sure and Were like yeah duh, its minus 10 degrees outside, but this is some. You know, education that needs to happen. Thats, also something that we can do here. We just pre condition the car at a very low temperature. Then we uh run a certain cycle and look how how much the range will uh change.
Then. Oh, so double wall, yeah thats for thermal insulation, yeah. Oh that makes sense because of the noise, because its quite noisy inside yeah, but wow its really loud in there. Amazing, so you can barely hear it in there and its already just so loud in here, yeah. Imagine if we have 260 kph inside thats really not really screaming. So this is your airflow thats, our air blower, yes, and does it? Is it attached to the dyno at all? No, no! No! No! These are four separate rollers with four separate motors and they are synced just uh yeah through software wheres, the software yeah, and you can obviously put a really big car in here. If you wanted to, we can adjust the wheelbase from 1 meter and 80 to 4 meter and 30., so theres only one problem with this. You only have four rollers and when the electric g 6×6 comes, how will you do this yeah with the electric one? It will be different depending on the on the concept but uh for the previous one was the combustion engine yeah. You just had to close the um the. What is it called the differential yeah and then disassemble two wheels. Okay, really so you pulled the wheel thats right, because you made the g six by six here. This one was not certified here right, yeah, okay, just know what you did like this, so you basically had to adapt it thats amazing! I love it.
I was just making a joke, but there actually has been a six months um. So yeah. Can you kind of explain a little bit about the room yeah? So what you see here, of course, the dyno. You can adjust the wheelbase by moving the rear rollers. Then you have the wind blower, sunlight simulation and the air is circulating here in the in the building up there. There are big coolers or exchanges, and then it goes down to the uh blower and then with the again to the car and the things you see here in the back there mainly for emission testing yeah. So all of this over here yeah this is this – is all the colors all of these pipes, its so much less complicated with a battery electric isnt it its different. Is it uh even more complicated when you start evaluating plug in hybrids, because you need to look at battery state of charge and motor everything in the most complex way, then yeah and then you need to look at like this changeover period. And so do you do a lot of plug in hybrid work here uh, it depends always on the project. Right now. We dont have that many plug in hybrid the the products that we have right now here, yeah mainly battery electric yeah and, of course we do a lot of mission tests, but yeah right now, a lot of battery electric yeah yeah yeah. That is amazing how loud it gets in there and how silent it is out here yeah, but it gets way louder now, when the driver is starting, especially the wind blower, its very noisy, yeah, yeah, so um what we did now is we moved the monitor to The windscreen shield, so that the driver can see exactly the same that we are seeing here on this monitor, and so what is yeah tell us what all of these are here, so this white line? This is the relevant line.
The driver needs to follow this line here. You see the full uh wltc cycle, so this is the wltp cycle here very nice, and how long does it take to run this test uh? What is it 1800 seconds? I think. Oh yes, okay, and what are these temp? These uh? You have uh barometer cell temperature of inside this room inside yeah. Of course, right now were not running our official tests. We would need the car precondition and yeah. Also. We now have the sunlight switched on right, which is not valid for the wlt, but epa does factor in hvac systems yeah in the so3 right. Yes, but if we now start this cycle and how long does it take a driver to get trained for this? It takes a while yeah because you have to be really precise with the accelerator. He must be the smoothest driver in real life right now, its even harder because of the sunlight inside he doesnt see the uh. This is the screen very good, so its its harder. Now the official wltc is without the without the sunlight and its then even hes having to use the accelerator pedal and the brake pedal depending on drive mode of the individual vehicle, and where is his speed? Is it this little line right here this x, yeah yeah? This x is exactly his speed. Yeah. You see that going around here, right, yep, so hes going. You know about 12 kilometers per hour, something like this yeah and then we can see his speed right here.
15. 16. 17., oh yeah, of course, and then this is the kilowatts of the car or of the dyno of the dino of the dino yeah. A typical drive uh cycle is uh half an hour yeah and after half an hour, and we have to change the car. The next car is tested, and so on, because its not only driving different versions of the car is that why or uh? No so what were also doing here is conform. The production testing we get cars from the production line, better electric cars, but also combustion engine cars, and we test them for range for uh, electric consumption for emissions and um in europe. This is legally required to do the cop measurements and if all results are within the declared values and within the legal values, then the car can go back to production. If, then, that gets sold on to someone at that point, yeah thats already a customer card, yeah and um this. This uh is just a single test with a car, and it wont be too long because you dont want to put too many miles on a customer car or how is this its one, wltp yeah, so its in total around about 100 kilometers, okay yeah, with all The preparation, all the uh and do you it has to be a random car uh. It has to be a random car, yeah, interesting that makes production even more difficult, yeah crazy, and so this is uh.
This is what happens so once you get your data at the end, what uh? What parameters are you looking at and what it depends on? What test were doing? If were doing a thermal test? We have uh, of course, hundreds of measurement of temperature, sensors, yeah uh. If its an emission test, we look at the emission results and really depends on what were looking at yeah yeah makes sense. This is really cool well and then i guess just to finish up a quick video today. What, in your opinion, is the best drive cycle for determining range, because each has their own positives and negatives, and i know its not your main job, to evaluate them but um in your impression uh, which, which seems to be the most relevant to real world testing. To real world testing, so i think the the wltp uh is not that good for real testing, as there is no hvac system or no ac, there is only the 23 c ambient temperature. Maybe the epa cycles a little bit better for showing the the actual range but im not the real expert on that yeah. So perhaps we need to make an out of spec and magna test cycle yeah yeah. Of course, there are a lot of real world drive cycles that yeah the different companies are testing with yeah. Every oem has a certain procedure or also now there is a lot of real testing not on the dyno, but on public roads or bringing real world uh drive traces to a dyno and right and running and running on a dyno yeah, so uh its always bringing The road to the rig, but with as much information from the road right, yeah thats super neat.
Well, i cant thank you enough for showing us this. This was really fascinating. Im thrilled were able to bring this stuff to our audience, because this is all ive been trying to do for years. This is great, its really really really good stuff and cool to see this thing running, i mean i know, hes running a cycle right now, but we saw this thing going. You know 120 130 kilometers per hour and it makes so much noise and everything in there with the fans blowing and its so cool to see the car, so so still, but this wheels going so fast, its just awesome, yeah cant. Thank you enough for the experience.